- DRAWING THE EYE
Step 1 - The Outline of the Eye
Close observation is very important when starting the line drawing of an eye. You must pay particular attention to the difference in shape between the upper and lower eyelids. Each eye is unique and the more acute your observation, the more accurate a likeness you will achieve.
Step 2 - Drawing the Iris
You should note how the upper eyelid covers the top of the iris. Most beginners draw the iris too small and try to fit it within the white of the eye. The bottom of the iris usually sits on or very slightly below the lower eyelid.
Step 3 - The Surface of the Eye
There are two main elements to consider when drawing the glassy surface of the eye:
1. A bright glint of reflected light should be left as unshaded paper at the start of the tonal drawing. This will become the brightest element in the eye. This reflection is further enhanced by its contrast with the pupil - the darkest element in the eye.
2. The iris contains a variety of tones and flecks which radiate to the centre of the pupil. It is usually darker around its outside edge and lightens towards its centre creating a translucent effect.
Step 4 - The Eye Socket
The final step is to render the solidity of the eye socket and surrounding area using graduated tone.
The upper eyelid casts a shadow which forms a dark curve across the top of the eyeball. This gradually softens into the shaded areas at each corner of the eye.
Graduated shading is used to cover the outline detail and build up the tone of the eyelids and surrounding area.
Eyebrows and eyelashes are formed by soft, delicate hairs, so draw these lightly and pay particular attention to the direction of their growth.
PENCIL PORTRAITS - DRAWING THE MOUTH
Step 1 - The Line Drawing
The mouth is the second most expressive feature of the face. Great care should be taken in drawing its shape as it is a key element in achieving a likeness.
Start by drawing the subtle shape of the line that is formed as the lips meet. This will create a natural expression for the mouth.
The top lip has its characteristic bow shape which varies considerably from person to person. The bottom lip is usually larger than the top and more creased with vertical stretch lines.
Step 2 - The Basic Tones
The upper lip slopes inwards and is normally darker in tone as it is shaded from the light.
The lower lip is more fleshy with a stronger muscular structure. It tends to catch the light and is further distinguished by the shadow below its pouting form.
Step 3 - The Final Tones
In the final stages of drawing the mouth, tone is used to soften the edges and refine the detail. Not only should it highlight the surface texture of the skin, but it should also make you more aware of the muscular structure that lies beneath.
There is a subtle softening around the edges of the lips which helps to blend them comfortably into the face. Note how the detail at each corner of the mouth diffuses into a small area of tone.